All the syngenetic caves are non-karstic caves. The postgeneticcaves listed here are those caves, which have been developed mainly through rock fragmentation, weathering and wearing or corrasion. Corrosion, the acidic dissolution process, has played only a subordinate part. This is a simplified definition. We have to state that these cave forming processes are mainly effective in magmatic rocks or in highly siliceous metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.
The list includes 1299 non-karstic caves have been listed. We have listed all the caves known up to 2019. Some cave which are known to have existed, have been destroyed and these have been specially noted. Furthermore, listed are caves of the border regions of Austria and Slovakia, which belong to similar geomorphological and geological formations. Also included in the list are artificial or artificially widened cavities, which are considered as caves by the local population. These include abandoned mine workings, rock shelters, former hermitages, underground commercial premises which are several hundred years old, rock-chapels and other cavities used for religious purposes throughout history. However, the list does not include cellars, former cave-dwellings in built up areas, basements, former military bunkers, industrial objects or air-raid shelters.
The majority of the non-karstic caves in Hungary (928 caves) developed in igneous rocks, in andesite, basalt, rhyolite and in their tuffaceous formations as well as in granite porphyry. Some 287 caves are known in sedimentary rocks, mainly in sandstones and conglomerate and 84 caves are formed in metamorphic rocks, in calcareous phillite and in green schist.
The caves have been formed in various ways. Between the syngenetic caves in the magmatic rocks, gas bubbles occurred, forming crystal caves, which have been opened by mine workings. Also in magmatic rocks holes formed by alkaline solution can be found, as well as fumarole cavities ,hollows resulting from steam explosions, holes formed by weathering between the basaltic columns and natural bridges. In the magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic rock formations tectonic fracture caves frequently appear, collapse labyrinths, atectonic and consequence caves. Erosion niches, rock shelters, and small tunnels are formed mainly in tuffaceous formations, sandstones and loess.
During the deposition of the calc-tufas, characteristic syngenetic caves formed concurrently. Corridors, tunnels and chambers and other a rtificial holes were frequently mined and enlarged in volcanic tuffs and sandstones but rarely in other rock formations.
In some non-karstic caves Neolithic, Bronze Age and. Iron Age archeological remains were discovered, e.g. at Nagy-barlang in Legyesbénye and Pokol-lik in Kapolcs. The first written reference to a non-karstic cave dates from 1295 (Likas-kő in Lovasberény). In 1869 the geologist József Szabó led the first expedition to the Mátra Mountains in order to explore the Csörgő-lyuk. It was many years later in the 1930’s that some researchers again investigated non-karstic caves. In the 1950’s and 1960’s exploration was further revived in these caves.
Organised research beganin1983 with the launch of the Volcanspeleological Collective. Their comprehensive activityis still ongoing. The organisation, led by István Eszterhás, consists of a nucleus of 15 persons, who are occasionally joined by several more cavers They have listed and surveyed 1246 non-karstic caves. In 40 caves they dug and discovered nearly 1000 m of new cave passages. They studied the development of the non-karstic caves, and they determined new types of cave development (consequence caves ,holes formed by alkaline solution, fumarole cavities).
They have found, and described, some speleothems previously unknown in Hungary, such as silicat stalactitesand isingerit discs. They have solved the problem of ice development in low elevation basalt caves.They have classified 200 speciesof animals and 18 species of fungii (some of them are unusual)which are to be found in the caves. The results have been summarized in 7 separate volumes and in 188 articles mainly in Hungarian, but occasionally in German or in English.
The following is a short listof the longest non-karstic caves in Hungary:
1. Csörgő Hole (rhyodacit tuff) Mátra Mountains 428/-30 m
2. Anna Calc-tufa Cave ,partly man-made (calc-tufa) Bükk Mountains 600/ ±18m
3. Várhegyi Calc-tufa Cave, partly man-made (calc-tufa) Budai Mountains 3300/±15m (3. according to the appr. length of the natural part)
4. Papp Ferenc Cave,partly karstic (sandstone, conglomerate, limestone) Pilis Mountains 335/-66m
5. Tettyei calc-tufa Cave, partly man-made (calc-tufa) Mecsek Mountains 218/+2 m
6. Szabó József Cave, partly karstic (sandstone, marl) Pilis Mountains 200/-25 m
7. Pulai Basalt Cave(basalt) Bakony Mountains 151/-22 m
8. Csák-kői Big Cave,partly man-made (rhyolite ) Mátra Mountains 133/+14 m
9. Soltészkerti Calc-tufaCave, partly man-made (calc-tufa) Bükk Region 115/+2m
10. Betyár Cave (calcareoussandstone) Mátra Mountains 87/±7m
11. Kő-hegyi Cave (calc-tufa) Gerecse Mountains 85/±12 m
12. Halász Árpád Cave, partly man-made (basalt) Bakony Mountains 72/-6m
13. Disznós-árki-Cave (andezite agglomerate) Visegrádi Mountains 70/-13 m
14. Szilvás-kői Cave (basalt)Medves-Ajnácskői Mountains 65/-13 m
15. Sas-kövi Cave (andesite tuff) Visegrádi Mountains 63/-10m
16. "Táncterem"- Lepkés Passage (andesite agglomerate) BükkRegion 58/-6 m
17. Panka Shaft Cave (basalt) Badacsony 56/-18 m
18. Sárkánytorok Cave (basalt) Medves - Ajnácskői Mountains 51/-16 m
19. Pokol Hole (basalt) BakonyMountains 51/+4 m
20. Vasas Chasm NoI.Cave (andesite agglomerate) Visegrádi Mountains 50/-19m
21. Széchy Dénes Cave (limestone and sandstone) Esztergom 50 /±10 m
22. Arany Cave (rhyolite tuff) Tokaj -Eperjesi Mountain Chain 50/+3 m
23. Rózsa Sándor Cave (andesite) Tokaj -Eperjesi Mountain Chain 46/-14m
The digital development of the Non-karstic Cave Registry was carried out using Arcview GIS with the available digital map material. .Digital maps with different scales have been developed for the specific regions as project files (apr).The number of map pages for a region depends on the number and distribution of caves.
The cave entrances have been marked on the maps on a separate layer (shp file). Originally the caves were recorded in survey books, topographic maps, and in notes following many years of research and exploration.
Arcview determines the eov_x and eov_y coordinates (eov= uniform national projection) of cave entrances in shp file format. The z coordinate, or the elevation of the cave entrances (a.s.l.) can be read from the contour lines of the base maps or on the base of GPS measurements.
The maps were drawn using color ,and different line thickness etc. The most important item was the indication of the cave entrances and cave names. .The maps were exported in jpg file format. This enables further utilization and handling.
From the twenty-one regions the caves of 16 regions can be drawn in more then one map page. Therefore the preparation of regional index maps was necessary. These maps show the exact location of the map pages with th ecave entrances indicated.
The Index Map of Hungary shows the 21 locations of the regions with non-karstic caves and a table of the regions has been prepared, too..
The. Index Map of Hungary and the Regional Index maps were converted to jpg file format, as were the detailed maps, the advantage being that jpg format is also similar.
The dbf database, which was compiled automatically from the shp files was filled with cave data. Thisincluded: identification nnumber, name and length of the cave, special notes (artificial, collapsed etc.) and the enclosing rock. The eov_xand eov_y coordinates of the cave entrances (eov= uniform national projection) were enterd as numeric fields in the data base.
In order to present regional datasheets, the dbf database was copied in and xls (MsExcell) file formats and the data is sorted in alphabetic order in some cases the z coordinate is indicated . Where Regional Index Maps exist this data is also sorted according to the indicated map pages of the Index Map.
The cave surveys and photographs were saved in gif and jpg file format. The cave descriptions were written in txt format.
The digital data in the non-karstic cave list, such as detailed maps and the index maps, the cave surveys and the photographs the data sheets and the descriptions allows the transfer and presentation of the cave list.
The Home Page of the cave list summarises the non-karstic caves in Hungary.
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