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Non-karstic Caves of the Visegrádi Mountains

The 250 km2 Visegrádi Mountains make up the Trans-Danubianarea of the Northern Hungarian Mountain Range between the Danube River,Dera Creek and Szentléleki Creek. The region is a stratovolcanowhich is strongly denudated and dissected along fault lines. It is composedof andesite agglomerate, andesite tuff and subordinately compacted andesite.The dissected tectonic blocks have been substantially uplifted and submergedto the same degree. In the westernmost part of the mountains the baserockis not covered with volcanic blanket. In the Castle Hill of EsztergomTriassiclimestone crops out, which is overlain by Eocene sandstone.

In the Visegrádi Mountains there are 100 natural non-karstic    caves. Furthermore 7 artificial cavities, called caves, have been    listed.The overhelming majority of the natural caves (87 caves)    have been formed in andesite agglomerate. Ten caves have been    developed in andesite tuff,two caves are in compact andesite and    one in sandstone.

There are syngentic caves such as the Mária Cave, Csikóvári Tube Cave and the Ablakos Cave. These are former fumarole channels.  The origin of the Csódi-hegyi Cave is also assumed to be syngenetic.


Various postgenetic caves can be observed.  The Kolevkai Rock Hole or the Hársas Shaft have developed by tectonic movement. The caves of the Vasas Chasm and the Disznós-árki Cave

have occured as a result of the sliding of broken rock layers and the consequent aggradation.

Rock fragmentation formed the Ötlyukú Cave, and the  Kőtorony-alatti Cave. Pseudocaves are the Matricás Cave or the Kecske Hole.  The caves of the Rám Chasm and the Karolina Trench are typical erosion caves. The Dömörkapu Cave is a consequence cave, which has developed as a result of the collapse of a former mine passage. The Széchy Dénes Cave opens in the Castle Hill of Esztergom. There the thermal karstic solution has formed cavities in the Dachstein Limestone near boundary of the limestone and the covering Eocene sandstone. Later the cavities gradually collapsed and the holes

 have relocated into the sandstone. As a consequence of that the major part of the cave is be found in sandstone.


The artificial cavities in Holdvilág Trench  were made for use by ancient cults.  The cavities in Malom Creek, near the village of Dömös are abandoned mining workings.


The following caves are longer than 10 m:


1.Jéggombás Cave                 andezite agglomerate             Pilisszentkereszt          79 m

2. Disznós-árki- Cave           andezite agglomerate                Pilisszentkereszt       70 /-13 m

3. Sas-kövi- Cave                    andezte tuff                             Szentendre                  63 /-10 m

4. Vasas-szakadék I. sz. C.     andezite agglomerate              Szentendre                  50 /-12 m

5.  Széchy Dénes Cave         sandstone + limestone             Esztergom                   50 /±10 m

6. Apát-kút-völgyi Cave         andezittufa                              Visegrád                     kb. 40 /+0,5 m

7. Hadiúti Cave                      andezite agglomerate            Dömös kb.                  33 m

8. Vasas-szakadék III. sz. C.  andezite agglomerate              Szentendre                  29,5/-5,8 m

9. Vasas-szakadék IV. sz. C. andezite agglomerate               Szentendre                  25 /-15 m

10. Vasas-szakadék II. sz. C andezite agglomerate                Szentendre                  25 /-12,5 m

11. Ötlyulú Cave                     andezite agglomerate               Dömös                        18,5 /1,6 m

12. Kőtorony-alatti- Cave       andezite agglomerate              Dömös                         16 /-4 m

13. Domini- Cave                   andezittufa                              Pomáz                         15,9/+2,8 m

14. Kolevkai-sziklaüreg          andezite agglomerate              Pomáz                         15 /-8 m

15. Dömörkapui. Cave            andezite                                   Szentendre                  13 /+2 m

16. Meleg - lyuk                     andezite agglomerate                Dömös                        -/-12 m

17. Hársas Shaft                     andezite agglomerate              Visegrád                      10,5/-7 m

18. Varga-lyuk                        andezite agglomerate              Pilisszentkereszt          10 /-10 m

19. Tűfok Cave                       andezite agglomerate              Esztergom                   10 /-3,7 m


The total length of the 100 natural non-karstic caves is 479 m, the seven artificial cavities total 513 m in length.  Most of the caves occur near Dömös (29 caves), Pomáz (19 caves), Eszterom (15 caves) and Szentendre (11 caves).

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